General Information
    • ISSN: 1793-8201 (Print), 2972-4511 (Online)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Comput. Theory Eng.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mehmet Sahinoglu
    • Associate Editor-in-Chief: Assoc. Prof. Alberto Arteta, Assoc. Prof. Engin Maşazade
    • Managing Editor: Ms. Mia Hu
    • Abstracting/Indexing: Scopus (Since 2022), INSPEC (IET), CNKI,  Google Scholar, EBSCO, etc.
    • Average Days from Submission to Acceptance: 192 days
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Prof. Mehmet Sahinoglu
Computer Science Department, Troy University, USA
I'm happy to take on the position of editor in chief of IJCTE. We encourage authors to submit papers concerning any branch of computer theory and engineering.

IJCTE 2013 Vol.5(4): 598-602 ISSN: 1793-8201
DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE.2013.V5.757

Multiple Binary Images Watermarking in Spatial and Frequency Domains

Sameh Oueslati, Adnane Cherif, and Bassel Solaiman

Abstract—Watermarking is used for the protection of intellectual property, data integrity, and data authentication. This paper proposes a novel method for image watermarking based on embedding multiples watermarks in different domains of the image representation (spatial and DCT domains), without any distortion of the watermarked image. In the spatial domain, the processing method is based on study of segmentation by fuzzy c-means clustering method that outputs the zones of watermark embedding and respectively the associated appropriate embedding gain factors. However in the DCT domain a proper choice of the DCT coefficients based on the quantization JPEG table in the middle frequencies band is carried out. Several watermarks were embedded in these two domains in order to take advantage of the spatial domain robustness against different asynchronous attacks, associated to the DCT domain robustness against jpeg compression and some other signal processing distortions. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against a large set of synchronous and asynchronous image attacks such as filtering, lossy compression, cropping and rotation attack.

Index Terms—Image watermarking, multi-domains, multi-watermark, insertion force, fuzzy c-mean (FCM)

S. Oueslati is with the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Department of Physics, Laboratory of Signal Processing, Tunis, 1060, Tunisia (e-mail:
A. Cherif is with the Department of Physics, Laboratory of Signal Processing, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, 1060, Tunisia (e-mail:
B. Solaiman is with the Higher National School of Telecommunication of Bretagne, Department: Image and Information Processing, Technopole of Brest Iroise, 29285 Brest, France (e-mail:


Cite:Sameh Oueslati, Adnane Cherif, and Bassel Solaiman, "Multiple Binary Images Watermarking in Spatial and Frequency Domains," International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 598-602, 2013.

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