General Information
    • ISSN: 1793-8201 (Print), 2972-4511 (Online)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Comput. Theory Eng.
    • Frequency: Quarterly
    • DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Mehmet Sahinoglu
    • Associate Editor-in-Chief: Assoc. Prof. Alberto Arteta, Assoc. Prof. Engin Maşazade
    • Managing Editor: Ms. Mia Hu
    • Abstracting/Indexing: Scopus (Since 2022), INSPEC (IET), CNKI,  Google Scholar, EBSCO, etc.
    • Average Days from Submission to Acceptance: 192 days
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Prof. Mehmet Sahinoglu
Computer Science Department, Troy University, USA
I'm happy to take on the position of editor in chief of IJCTE. We encourage authors to submit papers concerning any branch of computer theory and engineering.

IJCTE 2010 Vol.2(3): 338-344 ISSN: 1793-8201
DOI: 10.7763/IJCTE.2010.V2.164

An Adaptive Data Hiding Technique for Digital Image Authentication

Sarabjeet S. Bedi, Shekhar Verma and Geetam Tomar

Abstract—The proposed scheme combines the advantages of cryptographic concept and imperceptibility feature of digital image watermarking in spatial domain. The watermark is first generated based on one-way hash function with the help of user key. Each bit of this new generated watermark is then embedded into respective blocks of the original image, in raster scan order. The embedding is performed by modifying the average value of pixel intensity of each block within a range specified by the contrast value for a given block. This reduces the effects of the modification as perceived by the human eye. The extraction procedure computes and compares the sum of the pixels values for the blocks of the original and watermarked image. The results demonstrates the robustness of scheme against common image processing operations like cropping, modification, low pass filter, median pass filter, scaled down and lossy JPEG compression with various quality index factor. Results also illustrate that the watermark is secure, recoverable and recognizable even after the watermarked image has been tampered, forged and modified by common image processing operations. The comparative study of proposed scheme with existing scheme has also been performed to observe the strength of the scheme.

Index Terms—Digital Watermarking (DWM), Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG), Message Digest (MD), One-way Hash, Spatial Domain.

First author, Sarbjit Singh Bedi is with department of Computer Science and Engineering, M.J.P. Rohelkhand University, Bareilly-243006, India. (e-mail: erbedi@
Second author, Shekhar Verma is with Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad 211011, India. (e-mail:
Third author, Geetam Singh Tomar was with Vikrant Institute of Technology & management, Indore India. Now He is with Malwa Institute of Technology & Management, Gwalior, India as Principal and Machine Intelligence Research Laboratories, India Section, Gwalior, 474011 India. (e-mail:


Cite: Sarabjeet S. Bedi, Shekhar Verma and Geetam Tomar, "An Adaptive Data Hiding Technique for Digital Image Authentication," International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 338-344, 2010.

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