Abstract—Wireless Sensor Networks are composed of very small nodes having limited resources. One of those resources is energy available in the form of battery. Efficient use of this energy is a challenging factor in designing a routing protocol. Void areas are created due to early loss of energy of a few nodes. These void areas are routing holes. In this paper a routing algorithm has been proposed that uses the geographic information of the nodes and average of energy levels available for forwarding the packets within the network. Each node has information about its distance from its neighbor. When it receives a packet for forwarding, it takes decision about the next hop by first calculating the average energy of all the neighbors and then selecting one on the basis of this average energy and the shortest distance. When the packet reaches a routing hole area, it is redirected by first reversing the link and then again using average energy and distance. The proposed algorithm shows a high packet delivery rate and gives longer life to the network by using energy of the nodes in an efficient manner.
Index Terms—Energy efficient, Routing protocol, Wireless sensor networks.
Ifrah Farrukh Khan is with College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan, on leave from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Muhammad Younus Javed is with Computer Engineering Department of College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan (e-mail: email@example.com).
Cite: Ifrah Farrukh Khan and Muhammad Younus Javed, "Hole Healing Energy Aware Algorithm For Wireless Sensor Networks," International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 706-711, 2010.